# Automatic parallelization with `@jit`

Setting the parallel option for `jit()`

enables
a Numba transformation pass that attempts to automatically parallelize and
perform other optimizations on (part of) a function. At the moment, this
feature only works on CPUs.

Some operations inside a user defined function, e.g. adding a scalar value to
an array, are known to have parallel semantics. A user program may contain
many such operations and while each operation could be parallelized
individually, such an approach often has lackluster performance due to poor
cache behavior. Instead, with auto-parallelization, Numba attempts to
identify such operations in a user program, and fuse adjacent ones together,
to form one or more kernels that are automatically run in parallel.
The process is fully automated without modifications to the user program,
which is in contrast to Numba’s `vectorize()`

or
`guvectorize()`

mechanism, where manual effort is required
to create parallel kernels.

## Supported Operations

In this section, we give a list of all the array operations that have parallel semantics and for which we attempt to parallelize.

All numba array operations that are supported by Case study: Array Expressions, which include common arithmetic functions between Numpy arrays, and between arrays and scalars, as well as Numpy ufuncs. They are often called element-wise or point-wise array operations:

unary operators:

`+`

`-`

`~`

binary operators:

`+`

`-`

`*`

`/`

`/?`

`%`

`|`

`>>`

`^`

`<<`

`&`

`**`

`//`

comparison operators:

`==`

`!=`

`<`

`<=`

`>`

`>=`

Numpy ufuncs that are supported in nopython mode.

User defined

`DUFunc`

through`vectorize()`

.

Numpy reduction functions

`sum`

,`prod`

,`min`

,`max`

,`argmin`

, and`argmax`

. Also, array math functions`mean`

,`var`

, and`std`

.Numpy array creation functions

`zeros`

,`ones`

,`arange`

,`linspace`

, and several random functions (rand, randn, ranf, random_sample, sample, random, standard_normal, chisquare, weibull, power, geometric, exponential, poisson, rayleigh, normal, uniform, beta, binomial, f, gamma, lognormal, laplace, randint, triangular).Numpy

`dot`

function between a matrix and a vector, or two vectors. In all other cases, Numba’s default implementation is used.Multi-dimensional arrays are also supported for the above operations when operands have matching dimension and size. The full semantics of Numpy broadcast between arrays with mixed dimensionality or size is not supported, nor is the reduction across a selected dimension.

Array assignment in which the target is an array selection using a slice or a boolean array, and the value being assigned is either a scalar or another selection where the slice range or bitarray are inferred to be compatible.

The

`reduce`

operator of`functools`

is supported for specifying parallel reductions on 1D Numpy arrays but the initial value argument is mandatory.

## Explicit Parallel Loops

Another feature of the code transformation pass (when `parallel=True`

) is
support for explicit parallel loops. One can use Numba’s `prange`

instead of
`range`

to specify that a loop can be parallelized. The user is required to
make sure that the loop does not have cross iteration dependencies except for
supported reductions.

A reduction is inferred automatically if a variable is updated by a supported binary
function/operator using its previous value in the loop body. The following
functions/operators are supported: `+=`

, `+`

, `-=`

, `-`

, `*=`

,
`*`

, `/=`

, `/`

, `max()`

, `min()`

.
The initial value of the reduction is inferred automatically for the
supported operators (i.e., not the `max`

and `min`

functions).
Note that the `//=`

operator is not supported because
in the general case the result depends on the order in which the divisors are
applied. However, if all divisors are integers then the programmer may be
able to rewrite the `//=`

reduction as a `*=`

reduction followed by
a single floor division after the parallel region where the divisor is the
accumulated product.
For the `max`

and `min`

functions, the reduction variable should hold the identity
value right before entering the `prange`

loop. Reductions in this manner
are supported for scalars and for arrays of arbitrary dimensions.

The example below demonstrates a parallel loop with a
reduction (`A`

is a one-dimensional Numpy array):

```
from numba import njit, prange
@njit(parallel=True)
def prange_test(A):
s = 0
# Without "parallel=True" in the jit-decorator
# the prange statement is equivalent to range
for i in prange(A.shape[0]):
s += A[i]
return s
```

The following example demonstrates a product reduction on a two-dimensional array:

```
from numba import njit, prange
import numpy as np
@njit(parallel=True)
def two_d_array_reduction_prod(n):
shp = (13, 17)
result1 = 2 * np.ones(shp, np.int_)
tmp = 2 * np.ones_like(result1)
for i in prange(n):
result1 *= tmp
return result1
```

Note

When using Python’s `range`

to induce a loop, Numba types the
induction variable as a signed integer. This is also the case for
Numba’s `prange`

when `parallel=False`

. However, for
`parallel=True`

, if the range is identifiable as strictly positive,
the type of the induction variable will be `uint64`

. The impact of
a `uint64`

induction variable is often most noticeable when
undertaking operations involving it and a signed integer. Under
Numba’s type coercion rules, such a case will commonly result in the
operation producing a floating point result type.

Note

Only prange loops with a single entry block and single exit block can be converted such that they will be run in parallel. Exceptional control flow, such as an assertion, in the loop can generate multiple exit blocks and cause the loop not to be run in parallel. If this is the case, Numba will issue a warning indicating which loop could not be parallelized.

Care should be taken, however, when reducing into slices or elements of an array if the elements specified by the slice or index are written to simultaneously by multiple parallel threads. The compiler may not detect such cases and then a race condition would occur.

The following example demonstrates such a case where a race condition in the execution of the parallel for-loop results in an incorrect return value:

```
from numba import njit, prange
import numpy as np
@njit(parallel=True)
def prange_wrong_result(x):
n = x.shape[0]
y = np.zeros(4)
for i in prange(n):
# accumulating into the same element of `y` from different
# parallel iterations of the loop results in a race condition
y[:] += x[i]
return y
```

as does the following example where the accumulating element is explicitly specified:

```
from numba import njit, prange
import numpy as np
@njit(parallel=True)
def prange_wrong_result(x):
n = x.shape[0]
y = np.zeros(4)
for i in prange(n):
# accumulating into the same element of `y` from different
# parallel iterations of the loop results in a race condition
y[i % 4] += x[i]
return y
```

whereas performing a whole array reduction is fine:

```
from numba import njit, prange
import numpy as np
@njit(parallel=True)
def prange_ok_result_whole_arr(x):
n = x.shape[0]
y = np.zeros(4)
for i in prange(n):
y += x[i]
return y
```

as is creating a slice reference outside of the parallel reduction loop:

```
from numba import njit, prange
import numpy as np
@njit(parallel=True)
def prange_ok_result_outer_slice(x):
n = x.shape[0]
y = np.zeros(4)
z = y[:]
for i in prange(n):
z += x[i]
return y
```

## Examples

In this section, we give an example of how this feature helps parallelize Logistic Regression:

```
@numba.jit(nopython=True, parallel=True)
def logistic_regression(Y, X, w, iterations):
for i in range(iterations):
w -= np.dot(((1.0 / (1.0 + np.exp(-Y * np.dot(X, w))) - 1.0) * Y), X)
return w
```

We will not discuss details of the algorithm, but instead focus on how this program behaves with auto-parallelization:

Input

`Y`

is a vector of size`N`

,`X`

is an`N x D`

matrix, and`w`

is a vector of size`D`

.The function body is an iterative loop that updates variable

`w`

. The loop body consists of a sequence of vector and matrix operations.The inner

`dot`

operation produces a vector of size`N`

, followed by a sequence of arithmetic operations either between a scalar and vector of size`N`

, or two vectors both of size`N`

.The outer

`dot`

produces a vector of size`D`

, followed by an inplace array subtraction on variable`w`

.With auto-parallelization, all operations that produce array of size

`N`

are fused together to become a single parallel kernel. This includes the inner`dot`

operation and all point-wise array operations following it.The outer

`dot`

operation produces a result array of different dimension, and is not fused with the above kernel.

Here, the only thing required to take advantage of parallel hardware is to set
the parallel option for `jit()`

, with no
modifications to the `logistic_regression`

function itself. If we were to
give an equivalence parallel implementation using `guvectorize()`

,
it would require a pervasive change that rewrites the code to extract kernel
computation that can be parallelized, which was both tedious and challenging.

## Unsupported Operations

This section contains a non-exhaustive list of commonly encountered but currently unsupported features:

**Mutating a list is not threadsafe**Concurrent write operations on container types (i.e. lists, sets and dictionaries) in a

`prange`

parallel region are not threadsafe e.g.:@njit(parallel=True) def invalid(): z = [] for i in prange(10000): z.append(i) return z

It is highly likely that the above will result in corruption or an access violation as containers require thread-safety under mutation but this feature is not implemented.

**Induction variables are not associated with thread ID**The use of the induction variable induced by a

`prange`

based loop in conjunction with`get_num_threads`

as a method of ensuring safe writes into a pre-sized container is not valid e.g.:@njit(parallel=True) def invalid(): n = get_num_threads() z = [0 for _ in range(n)] for i in prange(100): z[i % n] += i return z

The above can on occasion appear to work, but it does so by luck. There’s no guarantee about which indexes are assigned to which executing threads or the order in which the loop iterations execute.

## Diagnostics

Note

At present not all parallel transforms and functions can be tracked through the code generation process. Occasionally diagnostics about some loops or transforms may be missing.

The parallel option for `jit()`

can produce
diagnostic information about the transforms undertaken in automatically
parallelizing the decorated code. This information can be accessed in two ways,
the first is by setting the environment variable
`NUMBA_PARALLEL_DIAGNOSTICS`

, the second is by calling
`parallel_diagnostics()`

, both methods give the same information
and print to `STDOUT`

. The level of verbosity in the diagnostic information is
controlled by an integer argument of value between 1 and 4 inclusive, 1 being
the least verbose and 4 the most. For example:

```
@njit(parallel=True)
def test(x):
n = x.shape[0]
a = np.sin(x)
b = np.cos(a * a)
acc = 0
for i in prange(n - 2):
for j in prange(n - 1):
acc += b[i] + b[j + 1]
return acc
test(np.arange(10))
test.parallel_diagnostics(level=4)
```

produces:

```
================================================================================
======= Parallel Accelerator Optimizing: Function test, example.py (4) =======
================================================================================
Parallel loop listing for Function test, example.py (4)
--------------------------------------|loop #ID
@njit(parallel=True) |
def test(x): |
n = x.shape[0] |
a = np.sin(x)---------------------| #0
b = np.cos(a * a)-----------------| #1
acc = 0 |
for i in prange(n - 2):-----------| #3
for j in prange(n - 1):-------| #2
acc += b[i] + b[j + 1] |
return acc |
--------------------------------- Fusing loops ---------------------------------
Attempting fusion of parallel loops (combines loops with similar properties)...
Trying to fuse loops #0 and #1:
- fusion succeeded: parallel for-loop #1 is fused into for-loop #0.
Trying to fuse loops #0 and #3:
- fusion failed: loop dimension mismatched in axis 0. slice(0, x_size0.1, 1)
!= slice(0, $40.4, 1)
----------------------------- Before Optimization ------------------------------
Parallel region 0:
+--0 (parallel)
+--1 (parallel)
Parallel region 1:
+--3 (parallel)
+--2 (parallel)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------ After Optimization ------------------------------
Parallel region 0:
+--0 (parallel, fused with loop(s): 1)
Parallel region 1:
+--3 (parallel)
+--2 (serial)
Parallel region 0 (loop #0) had 1 loop(s) fused.
Parallel region 1 (loop #3) had 0 loop(s) fused and 1 loop(s) serialized as part
of the larger parallel loop (#3).
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------Loop invariant code motion---------------------------
Instruction hoisting:
loop #0:
Failed to hoist the following:
dependency: $arg_out_var.10 = getitem(value=x, index=$parfor__index_5.99)
dependency: $0.6.11 = getattr(value=$0.5, attr=sin)
dependency: $expr_out_var.9 = call $0.6.11($arg_out_var.10, func=$0.6.11, args=[Var($arg_out_var.10, example.py (7))], kws=(), vararg=None)
dependency: $arg_out_var.17 = $expr_out_var.9 * $expr_out_var.9
dependency: $0.10.20 = getattr(value=$0.9, attr=cos)
dependency: $expr_out_var.16 = call $0.10.20($arg_out_var.17, func=$0.10.20, args=[Var($arg_out_var.17, example.py (8))], kws=(), vararg=None)
loop #3:
Has the following hoisted:
$const58.3 = const(int, 1)
$58.4 = _n_23 - $const58.3
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
```

To aid users unfamiliar with the transforms undertaken when the parallel option is used, and to assist in the understanding of the subsequent sections, the following definitions are provided:

- Loop fusion
Loop fusion is a technique whereby loops with equivalent bounds may be combined under certain conditions to produce a loop with a larger body (aiming to improve data locality).

- Loop serialization
Loop serialization occurs when any number of

`prange`

driven loops are present inside another`prange`

driven loop. In this case the outermost of all the`prange`

loops executes in parallel and any inner`prange`

loops (nested or otherwise) are treated as standard`range`

based loops. Essentially, nested parallelism does not occur.

- Loop invariant code motion
Loop invariant code motion is an optimization technique that analyses a loop to look for statements that can be moved outside the loop body without changing the result of executing the loop, these statements are then “hoisted” out of the loop to save repeated computation.

- Allocation hoisting
Allocation hoisting is a specialized case of loop invariant code motion that is possible due to the design of some common NumPy allocation methods. Explanation of this technique is best driven by an example:

@njit(parallel=True) def test(n): for i in prange(n): temp = np.zeros((50, 50)) # <--- Allocate a temporary array with np.zeros() for j in range(50): temp[j, j] = i # ...do something with temp

internally, this is transformed to approximately the following:

@njit(parallel=True) def test(n): for i in prange(n): temp = np.empty((50, 50)) # <--- np.zeros() is rewritten as np.empty() temp[:] = 0 # <--- and then a zero initialisation for j in range(50): temp[j, j] = i # ...do something with temp

then after hoisting:

@njit(parallel=True) def test(n): temp = np.empty((50, 50)) # <--- allocation is hoisted as a loop invariant as `np.empty` is considered pure for i in prange(n): temp[:] = 0 # <--- this remains as assignment is a side effect for j in range(50): temp[j, j] = i # ...do something with temp

it can be seen that the

`np.zeros`

allocation is split into an allocation and an assignment, and then the allocation is hoisted out of the loop in`i`

, this producing more efficient code as the allocation only occurs once.

### The parallel diagnostics report sections

The report is split into the following sections:

- Code annotation
This is the first section and contains the source code of the decorated function with loops that have parallel semantics identified and enumerated. The

`loop #ID`

column on the right of the source code lines up with identified parallel loops. From the example,`#0`

is`np.sin`

,`#1`

is`np.cos`

and`#2`

and`#3`

are`prange()`

:Parallel loop listing for Function test, example.py (4) --------------------------------------|loop #ID @njit(parallel=True) | def test(x): | n = x.shape[0] | a = np.sin(x)---------------------| #0 b = np.cos(a * a)-----------------| #1 acc = 0 | for i in prange(n - 2):-----------| #3 for j in prange(n - 1):-------| #2 acc += b[i] + b[j + 1] | return acc |

It is worth noting that the loop IDs are enumerated in the order they are discovered which is not necessarily the same order as present in the source. Further, it should also be noted that the parallel transforms use a static counter for loop ID indexing. As a consequence it is possible for the loop ID index to not start at 0 due to use of the same counter for internal optimizations/transforms taking place that are invisible to the user.

- Fusing loops
This section describes the attempts made at fusing discovered loops noting which succeeded and which failed. In the case of failure to fuse a reason is given (e.g. dependency on other data). From the example:

--------------------------------- Fusing loops --------------------------------- Attempting fusion of parallel loops (combines loops with similar properties)... Trying to fuse loops #0 and #1: - fusion succeeded: parallel for-loop #1 is fused into for-loop #0. Trying to fuse loops #0 and #3: - fusion failed: loop dimension mismatched in axis 0. slice(0, x_size0.1, 1) != slice(0, $40.4, 1)

It can be seen that fusion of loops

`#0`

and`#1`

was attempted and this succeeded (both are based on the same dimensions of`x`

). Following the successful fusion of`#0`

and`#1`

, fusion was attempted between`#0`

(now including the fused`#1`

loop) and`#3`

. This fusion failed because there is a loop dimension mismatch,`#0`

is size`x.shape`

whereas`#3`

is size`x.shape[0] - 2`

.

- Before Optimization
This section shows the structure of the parallel regions in the code before any optimization has taken place, but with loops associated with their final parallel region (this is to make before/after optimization output directly comparable). Multiple parallel regions may exist if there are loops which cannot be fused, in this case code within each region will execute in parallel, but each parallel region will run sequentially. From the example:

Parallel region 0: +--0 (parallel) +--1 (parallel) Parallel region 1: +--3 (parallel) +--2 (parallel)

As alluded to by the Fusing loops section, there are necessarily two parallel regions in the code. The first contains loops

`#0`

and`#1`

, the second contains`#3`

and`#2`

, all loops are marked`parallel`

as no optimization has taken place yet.

- After Optimization
This section shows the structure of the parallel regions in the code after optimization has taken place. Again, parallel regions are enumerated with their corresponding loops but this time loops which are fused or serialized are noted and a summary is presented. From the example:

Parallel region 0: +--0 (parallel, fused with loop(s): 1) Parallel region 1: +--3 (parallel) +--2 (serial) Parallel region 0 (loop #0) had 1 loop(s) fused. Parallel region 1 (loop #3) had 0 loop(s) fused and 1 loop(s) serialized as part of the larger parallel loop (#3).

It can be noted that parallel region 0 contains loop

`#0`

and, as seen in the fusing loops section, loop`#1`

is fused into loop`#0`

. It can also be noted that parallel region 1 contains loop`#3`

and that loop`#2`

(the inner`prange()`

) has been serialized for execution in the body of loop`#3`

.

- Loop invariant code motion
This section shows for each loop, after optimization has occurred:

the instructions that failed to be hoisted and the reason for failure (dependency/impure).

the instructions that were hoisted.

any allocation hoisting that may have occurred.

From the example:

Instruction hoisting: loop #0: Failed to hoist the following: dependency: $arg_out_var.10 = getitem(value=x, index=$parfor__index_5.99) dependency: $0.6.11 = getattr(value=$0.5, attr=sin) dependency: $expr_out_var.9 = call $0.6.11($arg_out_var.10, func=$0.6.11, args=[Var($arg_out_var.10, example.py (7))], kws=(), vararg=None) dependency: $arg_out_var.17 = $expr_out_var.9 * $expr_out_var.9 dependency: $0.10.20 = getattr(value=$0.9, attr=cos) dependency: $expr_out_var.16 = call $0.10.20($arg_out_var.17, func=$0.10.20, args=[Var($arg_out_var.17, example.py (8))], kws=(), vararg=None) loop #3: Has the following hoisted: $const58.3 = const(int, 1) $58.4 = _n_23 - $const58.3

The first thing to note is that this information is for advanced users as it refers to the Numba IR of the function being transformed. As an example, the expression

`a * a`

in the example source partly translates to the expression`$arg_out_var.17 = $expr_out_var.9 * $expr_out_var.9`

in the IR, this clearly cannot be hoisted out of`loop #0`

because it is not loop invariant! Whereas in`loop #3`

, the expression`$const58.3 = const(int, 1)`

comes from the source`b[j + 1]`

, the number`1`

is clearly a constant and so can be hoisted out of the loop.

## Scheduling

By default, Numba divides the iterations of a parallel region into approximately equal
sized chunks and gives one such chunk to each configured thread.
(See Setting the Number of Threads).
This scheduling approach is equivalent to OpenMP’s static schedule with no specified
chunk size and is appropriate when the work required for each iteration is nearly constant.
Conversely, if the work required per iteration, as shown in the `prange`

loop below,
varies significantly then this static
scheduling approach can lead to load imbalances and longer execution times.

```
1from numba import (njit,
2 prange,
3 )
4import numpy as np
5
6@njit(parallel=True)
7def func1():
8 n = 100
9 vals = np.empty(n)
10 # The work in each iteration of the following prange
11 # loop is proportional to its index.
12 for i in prange(n):
13 cur = i + 1
14 for j in range(i):
15 if cur % 2 == 0:
16 cur //= 2
17 else:
18 cur = cur * 3 + 1
19 vals[i] = cur
20 return vals
21
22result = func1()
```

In such cases,
Numba provides a mechanism to control how many iterations of a parallel region
(i.e., the chunk size) go into each chunk.
Numba then computes the number of required chunks which is
equal to the number of iterations divided by the chunk size, truncated to the nearest
integer. All of these chunks are then approximately, equally sized.
Numba then gives one such chunk to each configured
thread as above and when a thread finishes a chunk, Numba gives that thread the next
available chunk.
This scheduling approach is similar to OpenMP’s dynamic scheduling
option with the specified chunk size.
(Note that Numba is only capable of supporting this dynamic scheduling
of parallel regions if the underlying Numba threading backend,
The Threading Layers, is also capable of dynamic scheduling.
At the moment, only the `tbb`

backend is capable of dynamic
scheduling and so is required if any performance
benefit is to be achieved from this chunk size selection mechanism.)
To minimize execution time, the programmer must
pick a chunk size that strikes a balance between greater load balancing with smaller
chunk sizes and less scheduling overhead with larger chunk sizes.
See Parallel Chunksize Details for additional details on the internal implementation
of chunk sizes.

The number of iterations of a parallel region in a chunk is stored as a thread-local
variable and can be set using
`numba.set_parallel_chunksize()`

. This function takes one integer parameter
whose value must be greater than
or equal to 0. A value of 0 is the default value and instructs Numba to use the
static scheduling approach above. Values greater than 0 instruct Numba to use that value
as the chunk size in the dynamic scheduling approach described above.
`numba.set_parallel_chunksize()`

returns the previous value of the chunk size.
The current value of this thread local variable is used as the chunk size for all
subsequent parallel regions invoked by this thread.
However, upon entering a parallel region, Numba sets the chunk size thread local variable
for each of the threads executing that parallel region back to the default of 0,
since it is unlikely
that any nested parallel regions would require the same chunk size. If the same thread is
used to execute a sequential and parallel region then that thread’s chunk size
variable is set to 0 at the beginning of the parallel region and restored to
its original value upon exiting the parallel region.
This behavior is demonstrated in `func1`

in the example below in that the
reported chunk size inside the `prange`

parallel region is 0 but is 4 outside
the parallel region. Note that if the `prange`

is not executed in parallel for
any reason (e.g., setting `parallel=False`

) then the chunk size reported inside
the non-parallel prange would be reported as 4.
This behavior may initially be counterintuitive to programmers as it differs from
how thread local variables typically behave in other languages.
A programmer may use
the chunk size API described in this section within the threads executing a parallel
region if the programmer wishes to specify a chunk size for any nested parallel regions
that may be launched.
The current value of the parallel chunk size can be obtained by calling
`numba.get_parallel_chunksize()`

.
Both of these functions can be used from standard Python and from within Numba JIT compiled functions
as shown below. Both invocations of `func1`

would be executed with a chunk size of 4 whereas
`func2`

would use a chunk size of 8.

```
1from numba import (njit,
2 prange,
3 set_parallel_chunksize,
4 get_parallel_chunksize,
5 )
6
7@njit(parallel=True)
8def func1(n):
9 acc = 0
10 print(get_parallel_chunksize()) # Will print 4.
11 for i in prange(n):
12 print(get_parallel_chunksize()) # Will print 0.
13 acc += i
14 print(get_parallel_chunksize()) # Will print 4.
15 return acc
16
17@njit(parallel=True)
18def func2(n):
19 acc = 0
20 # This version gets the previous chunksize explicitly.
21 old_chunksize = get_parallel_chunksize()
22 set_parallel_chunksize(8)
23 for i in prange(n):
24 acc += i
25 set_parallel_chunksize(old_chunksize)
26 return acc
27
28# This version saves the previous chunksize as returned
29# by set_parallel_chunksize.
30old_chunksize = set_parallel_chunksize(4)
31result1 = func1(12)
32result2 = func2(12)
33result3 = func1(12)
34set_parallel_chunksize(old_chunksize)
```

Since this idiom of saving and restoring is so common, Numba provides the
`parallel_chunksize()`

with clause context-manager to simplify the idiom.
As shown below, this with clause can be invoked from both standard Python and
within Numba JIT compiled functions. As with other Numba context-managers, be
aware that the raising of exceptions is not supported from within a context managed
block that is part of a Numba JIT compiled function.

```
1from numba import njit, prange, parallel_chunksize
2
3@njit(parallel=True)
4def func1(n):
5 acc = 0
6 for i in prange(n):
7 acc += i
8 return acc
9
10@njit(parallel=True)
11def func2(n):
12 acc = 0
13 with parallel_chunksize(8):
14 for i in prange(n):
15 acc += i
16 return acc
17
18with parallel_chunksize(4):
19 result1 = func1(12)
20 result2 = func2(12)
21 result3 = func1(12)
```

Note that these functions to set the chunk size only have an effect on
Numba automatic parallelization with the parallel option.
Chunk size specification has no effect on the `vectorize()`

decorator
or the `guvectorize()`

decorator.

See also